Beyond a Reasonable Doubt: This is the standard for a jury to convict a person of a crime. Proof beyond a reasonable doubt is proof that leaves you with an abiding conviction that the charge is true. The evidence need not eliminate all possible doubt because everything in life is open to some possible or imaginary doubt. Beyond a Reasonable Doubt is the highest standard of proof used in a court and is a much higher standard than either a preponderance of the evidence or probable cause.
Collusion: Collusion does not have a legal definition. It simply means “secretly cooperating.” Collusion is not necessarily a crime in itself. Criminal conspiracy, which may involve collusion, is a crime.
Conspiracy: A conspiracy exists any time two or more people agree to commit a crime. In many cases, the conspiracy is itself a separate crime and may be charged even if no other crime is committed. Read more: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/371
Corruption: Corruption is the abuse of public power for private gain. Like collusion, it doesn’t have an exact legal definition.
Counterintelligence: As the world’s most powerful, productive, and influential country, the United States is constantly spied upon by foreign countries eager to steal secrets, technology, plans, and other information. Counterintelligence includes the effort by the FBI and other agencies to make sure that American secrets don’t get into the hands of people who would use them against the country — but it is more than that. Not just limited to preventing traditional “spying,” America’s counterintelligence efforts work to protect America from a range of threats ranging from terrorism to interference by foreign powers with our elections and political system. It’s also called counterespionage. Read more: https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/counterintelligence
Fraud: Fraud is a lie or misrepresentation of the truth used to trick someone. When lies or deceit are used to trick the United States government, such as in matters relating to taxes, the crime is called fraud against the United States. It’s also a crime to attempt to defraud the United States, for any reason, even if it doesn’t work. Read more: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1031
Obstruction of Justice: Obstruction of Justice is improperly interfering with a federal investigation or trial and includes things like lying to the FBI, encouraging others not to cooperate in an investigation and intimidating or bribing jurors. Read more: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1503
Probable Cause: In order to conduct a search or an arrest, or to charge someone with a crime, police and prosecutors have to show evidence of probable cause. For example, no one can be brought to trial unless there is enough evidence that an ordinary person would have a strong suspicion that the person accused had committed the crime charged. Probable Cause is a lower bar than Beyond a Reasonable Doubt or even a preponderance of the evidence. Read more: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/probable_cause
Rule of Law: The Rule of Law is a fundamental principle in a democratic republic such as ours. It is because of our firm belief in the Rule of Law that the Constitution itself is respected. We elect our leaders to powerful positions, but they are only temporary office-holders who ultimately answer to the people. The Rule of Law says that the government follows the law and applies it equally to everyone, rich and poor, powerful and weak, popular and hated. Just because someone holds high office doesn’t mean the rules don’t apply to them, even if — especially if –they’re the one charged with enforcing the laws. Read more: https://www.uscourts.gov/educational-resources/educational-activities/overview-rule-law
Witness Tampering: Like Obstruction of Justice, Witness Tampering involves attempting to delay, prevent, or change the outcome of a trial by interfering with those involved. Specifically, Witness Tampering is the crime of using force against, harassing, or threatening a witness in a federal criminal investigation or trial. It’s possible to commit Obstruction of Justice and Witness Tampering at the same time. Read more: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1512